Venus of Hohle Fels, Patung Wanita Tertua di Jerman
BERLIN – Sebuah ukiran gading berbentuk perempuan gendut yang ditemukan di Gua Hohle Fels, Jerman ini punya keunikan. Selain sosoknya yang mengundang perhatian, patung tersebut umurnya sudah sangat tua.
“Ini merupakan ukiran berbentuk sosok manusia yang paling tua di dunia,” ujar Jill Cook, seorang kurator paleolitikum dan mesolitikum di British Museum, London. Berdasarkan pengukuran karbon, usianya diperkirakan 35.000 tahun.
Patung-patung baru di Israel dan Afrika sebenarnya ada dua kali lebih tua daripada patung ukiran ini. Namun, bukan hasil pahatan melainkan kumpulan batu yang membentuk sosok manusia.
Saat ditemukan, ukiran gading tersebut telah pecah dalam enam bagian. Hasil rekonstruksi menunjukkan sosok tubuh perempuan tanpa kepala, dengan perut berlemak, payudara menonjol, dan paha besar. Bagian lengannya kirinya hilang.
“Ini sangat berkaitan dengan hal berbau seksual,” ujar Nicholas Conard, arkeolog dari Universitas Tuebingen. Menurutnya adanya ukiran berbentuk tubuh manusia ini menunjukkan bahwa manusia sejak lama sudah punya kemampuan menyimbolkan tubuhnya dalam bentuk benda.
Patung ukiran gading ini hanya setinggi 6 centimeter. Conard menduga ukiran tersebut digantung di ujung tali. Namun, fungsinya buat apa tak diketahui pasti meski diperkirakan pembuatnya terobsesi dengan seks.
Secara umum, ukiran ini mirip patung-patung disebut para arkeolog sebagai figur Venus yang khas tanpa kepala dan kaki. Sekitar 150 figur Venus ditemukan antara Pegunungan Pyrenees hingga Russia bagian selatan dan berumur antara 25.000-29.000 tahun. (WAH/AP)
Ivory carving may be oldest sculpture of human form
A 35,000-year-old ivory carving of a busty woman found in a German cave may be the oldest known sculpture of the human form, according to archeologists who unveiled it Wednesday.
The carving, found in six fragments in Germany’s Hohle Fels cave, depicts a woman with a swollen belly, wide-set thighs and large, protruding breasts.
“It’s very sexually charged,” said University of Tuebingen archeologist Nicholas Conard, whose team discovered the figure in September.
Carbon dating suggests it was carved at least 35,000 years ago, according to the researchers’ findings, which are being published Thursday in the scientific journal Nature.
“It’s the oldest known piece of figurative sculpture in the world,” said Jill Cook, a curator of paleolithic and mesolithic material at the British Museum in London.
Stones in Israel and Africa almost twice as old are believed to have been collected by ancient humans because they resembled people, but they were not carved independently.
An early Venus?
The Hohle Fels cave discovery suggests the humans, who are believed to have come to Europe around 40,000 years ago, had the intelligence to create symbols and think abstractly in a way that matches the modern human, Conard said.
“It’s 100 per cent certain that by the time we get to 40,000 years ago in Swabia, we’re dealing with people just like you and me,” Conard told The Associated Press, referring to the southern German region where the sculpture was recovered along with other prehistoric artifacts.
Conard believes the 2.4-inch (six-centimetre) figure may have been hung on the end of a string. The left arm is missing, but Conard said he hopes to find it by sifting through material from the cave.
The Hohle Fels sculpture is curvaceous and has neither feet nor a head, like some of the roughly 150 so-called Venus figurines found in a range from the Pyrenees mountains to southern Russia and dating back about 25,000-29,000 years.
But Cook warned against trying to draw any connections between the Venuses and the Hohle Fels figure, saying that would be like comparing Picasso to a classical sculptor – too much time had passed.
“I wonder whether at this point we’re looking at figures which are unique within themselves and unique within the cultures that they’re arising in,” she said.
Humans, not Neanderthals, made sculpture
Archeologist Paul Mellars, of the University of Cambridge, suggested a clearer continuum.
“We now have evidence of that sort of artistic tradition of Venus figurines going back 6,000 years earlier than anybody ever guessed,” he said.
Neanderthals also lived in Europe around the time the sculpture was carved, and frequented the Hohle Fels cave. But Mellars said layered deposits left by both species over thousands of years prove the sculpture was crafted by humans.
“Nothing within a million miles of this has ever been found in a Neanderthal layer,” Mellars said.
The archeologists agreed the sculpture’s age and features invite speculation about its purpose and the preoccupations of the culture that produced it. Cook suggested it could be symbol of fertility, perhaps even portrayed in the act of giving birth.
Mellars suggested a more basic motivation for the carving: “These people were obsessed with sex.”
Conard said the differing opinions reinforced the connection between the ancient artist and modern viewer.
“How we interpret it tells us just as much about ourselves as about people 40,000 years ago,” he said. (CBC)